Taxa

Glycine (soybean)

The best-known species in Glycine is the cultivated soybean, G. max, which was domesticated in Central and East Asia. The majority of the species in the genus are found only in Australia, while a few species extend from Australia to East Asia.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 3847

Tools and resources for the genus as a whole

SoyMine
InterMine interface for accessing genetic and genomic data for several species in Glycine.
ZZBrowse
Association viewers (QTL, GWAS)
GCViT
Genotype comparison visualization tool
Genome Context Viewer
Browser for dynamically discovering and viewing genomic synteny across selected species.
Grin Data Explorer
Tool to facilitate searches of GRIN Descriptor Data

Tools and resources for particular species


Glycine max: soybean

Soybean (Glycine max), the predominant oil-seed legume worldwide, was likely domesticated in East Asia, ~6000-9000 years ago (Sedivy et al., 2017; https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.14418). It has many culinary and industrial uses. Some of the culinary uses include: for direct consumption of the green seed (i.e. edamame) and leaves (cooked, much like spinach); for tofu, soymilk, textured vegetable protein, soy sauce, tempeh, natto, and vegetable oil. Industrial uses include: oils, soap, cosmetics, and biodiesel. Soybean is also used as a high-protein forage, and can be prepared for fish- and animal-feed.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 3847

Glycine max resources

SoyMine
InterMine interface for accessing genetic and genomic data for several species in Glycine.
ZZBrowse
Association viewers (QTL, GWAS)
GCViT
Genotype comparison visualization tool
Genome Context Viewer
Browser for dynamically discovering and viewing genomic synteny across selected species.
Grin Data Explorer
Tool to facilitate searches of GRIN Descriptor Data

Glycine max accessions

Wm82 (Northern United States)
Williams 82, the soybean cultivar used to produce the reference genome sequence, was derived from backcrossing a phytophthora root rot resistance locus from the donor parent Kingwa into the recurrent parent Williams. Zh13 (China)
Zhonghuang 13 is a Chinese cultivar derived from accessions Yudou 18 and Zhongzuo 90052-76 by pedigree selection for high yield and stress tolerance (Shen et al., 2018; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-018-9360-0). Lee (Southern United States)
Cultivar Lee, which derives from a cross of Chinese lines CNS and S-100, has been widely used as a parent in many breeding projects in the Southern U.S. and in Brazil (Wysmierski and Vello, 2013; http://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572013005000041). The variety is notable for resistance to Phytophthora rot, Peanut Mottle Virus, and bacterial pustule (Wysmierski and Vello, 2013). Wenfeng7_IGA1001 (National Soybean Preservation Center, ICS, CAAS)
Glycine max Wenfeng 7 (IGA1001) was sequenced and annotated by Chu, et al. (2021).
No resources are currently listed for accession Wenfeng7_IGA1001. Hefeng25_IGA1002 (Jiamusi Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
Glycine max Hefeng 25 (IGA1002) was sequenced and annotated by Chu, et al. (2021).
No resources are currently listed for accession Hefeng25_IGA1002. Zh35_IGA1004 (National Soybean Improvement Sub-Center, ICS, CAAS)
Glycine max Zhonghuang 35 (IGA1004) was sequenced and annotated by Chu, et al. (2021).
No resources are currently listed for accession Zh35_IGA1004. Zh13_IGA1005 (National Soybean Improvement Sub-Center, ICS, CAAS)
Zhonghuang 13 is a Chinese cultivar derived from accessions Yudou 18 and Zhongzuo 90052-76 by pedigree selection for high yield and stress tolerance (Shen et al., 2018; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-018-9360-0). This line, IGA1005, was sequenced and annotated by Chu, et al. (2021).
No resources are currently listed for accession Zh13_IGA1005. Jinyuan_IGA1006 (National Soybean Preservation Center, ICS, CAAS)
Glycine max Jinyuan (IGA1006) was sequenced and annotated by Chu, et al. (2021).
No resources are currently listed for accession Jinyuan_IGA1006. Huaxia3_IGA1007 (South China Agricultural University)
Glycine max Huaxia 3 (IGA1007) was sequenced and annotated by Chu, et al. (2021).
No resources are currently listed for accession Huaxia3_IGA1007. Wm82_IGA1008 (Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS)
Williams 82, the soybean cultivar used to produce the reference genome sequence, was derived from backcrossing a phytophthora root rot resistance locus from the donor parent Kingwa into the recurrent parent Williams. This line, IGA1008, was sequenced and annotated by Chu, et al. (2021).
No resources are currently listed for accession Wm82_IGA1008. FiskebyIII (Fiskeby, Norrköpping, Sweden)
Bred by the late Dr. Sven Holmberg in Fiskeby, Norrköpping, Sweden. Highly nutritious — up to 40% protein, high in calcium, iron, and vitamins (particularly A, B1, B12, and C). Thrives in northern climates. 75-80 days.
No resources are currently listed for accession FiskebyIII.

Glycine soja: wild soybean

Image: wild soybean
© Eun-Young Hwang, University of Maryland

Glycine soja is the closest wild relative of soybean, Glycine max. Populations of G. soja exist in the wild in China, Japan, Korea, and Russia. Analysis of genetic differences between the two species suggests that the two separated approximately 200 thousand years ago. The species remain interfertile, and G. soja accessions are used in breeding projects in order to introgress traits such as tolerance to particular diseases or environmental stresses.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 3848

Glycine soja resources

SoyMine
InterMine interface for accessing genetic and genomic data for several species in Glycine.
ZZBrowse
Association viewers (QTL, GWAS)
GCViT
Genotype comparison visualization tool
Genome Context Viewer
Browser for dynamically discovering and viewing genomic synteny across selected species.
Grin Data Explorer
Tool to facilitate searches of GRIN Descriptor Data

Glycine soja accessions

PI483463 (Shanxi Province, China)
Glycine soja accession PI 483463 has been identified as being unusually tolerant (Lee et al., 2009; https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esp027). The genome for this accession has been sequenced, partly on the basis of this salt-tolerance trait. W05 (Henan Province, China)
Glycine soja accession W05 is a salt-tolerant wild soybean whose genome has been sequenced to serve as a reference genome assembly. The W05 accession has been used for genetic studies of several traits, including indeterminacy, seed size, pod number per plant, and seed color (Xie et al., 2019; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09142-9). F_IGA1003 (National Wild Soybean Preservation Center, ICS, CAAS)
This Glycine soja wild soybean accession was sequenced and annotated by Chu, et al. (2021).
No resources are currently listed for accession F_IGA1003.

Glycine cyrtoloba

Image:

G. cyrotoloba (Tind) is a perennial plant with twining and stiff stems. G. cyrotoloba pods are curved and somewhat mottled in appearance containing 3-9 seeds that and are dark brown to black in color (Tindale, MD et al., 1984). G. cyrotoloba is a diploid (2n=40) member of the C-genome of Glycine. It is found along the coast of Queensland and Northern New South Wales (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011 ; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

NCBI taxonomy ID: 45689

Glycine cyrtoloba resources

SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax1.01
GBrowse for G. cyrtoloba Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax1.01
SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax2.0
GBrowse for G. cyrtoloba Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax2.0

Glycine cyrtoloba accessions

G1267 (Australian coasts of Queensland and Northern New South Wales)
G. cyrotoloba (Tind) is a perennial plant with twining and stiff stems. G. cyrotoloba pods are curved and somewhat mottled in appearance containing 3-9 seeds that and are dark brown to black in color (Tindale, MD et al., 1984).
No resources are currently listed for accession G1267.

Glycine dolichocarpa

Image:
© Eun-Young Hwang, University of Maryland

Glycine dolichocarpa (Tateishi & Ohashi) is a twining plant with long straight dark brown pods with 5-7 seeds. Seeds are square and dark brown in color. G. dolichocarpa is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 80) formed by hybridizatoin between G. syndetika and G. tomentella D3 (both 2n = 40). (This species was formerly part of the Glycine tomentella species complex and was referred to as G. tomentella T2.) It has a limited Australian range in Queensland, but like several other Glycine allopolyploids, has colonized islands of the Pacific Ocean (in this case Taiwan) where no perennial diploid Glycine species have been found ( Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Harbert et al 2014).

NCBI taxonomy ID: 82538

Glycine dolichocarpa resources

SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax1.01
GBrowse for G. dolichocarpa Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax1.01
SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax2.0
GBrowse for G. dolichocarpa Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax2.0

Glycine dolichocarpa accessions

G1134 (Queensland, Australia)
Glycine dolichocarpa (Tateishi & Ohashi) is a twining plant with long straight dark brown pods with 5-7 seeds. Seeds are square and dark brown in color.
No resources are currently listed for accession G1134.

Glycine falcata

Image:
© Eun-Young Hwang, University of Maryland

Glycine falcata (Benth.) is unique among perennial Glycine species in that it does not form a vine but rather short, erect stems from a fibrous woody root system instead of the more common taproot. Seeds are round and smooth similar to the annual species. G. falcata is a diploid (2n = 40) and is the sole member of the F-genome. It is sister to the remainder of subgenus Glycine, and is distinctive ecologically, characteristically growing in the black soil region of Queensland and possessing both chasmogamous and below- ground cleistogamous flowers, the latter producing geocarpic fruits (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

NCBI taxonomy ID: 45690

Glycine falcata resources

SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax1.01
GBrowse for G. falcata Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax1.01
SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax2.0
GBrowse for G. falcata Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax2.0

Glycine falcata accessions

G1718 (Queensland, Australia)
Glycine falcata (Benth.) is unique among perennial Glycine species in that it does not form a vine but rather short, erect stems from a fibrous woody root system instead of the more common taproot. Seeds are round and smooth similar to the annual species.
No resources are currently listed for accession G1718.

Glycine stenophita

Image:
© Eun-Young Hwang, University of Maryland

Glycine stenophita (B.E. Pfeil & Tind.) is a scrambling or climbing perennial that is glabrous or with sparse white hairs covering the stems. Pods are 4 to 6 seeded and seeds are generally barrel shaped with some variation in shape from elliptical to square. G. stenophita is a diploid (2n = 40) member of the B-genome group. It occurs in the Australian states of Queensland and New South Wales (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

NCBI taxonomy ID: 96944

Glycine stenophita resources

SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax1.01
GBrowse for G. stenophita Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax1.01
SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax2.0
GBrowse for G. stenophita Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax2.0

Glycine stenophita accessions

G1974 (Australian states of Queensland and New South Wales)
Glycine stenophita (B.E. Pfeil & Tind.) is a scrambling or climbing perennial that is glabrous or with sparse white hairs covering the stems. Pods are 4 to 6 seeded and seeds are generally barrel shaped with some variation in shape from elliptical to square.
No resources are currently listed for accession G1974.

Glycine syndetika

Image:
© Eun-Young Hwang, University of Maryland

Glycine syndetika (B.E. Pfeil & Craven) is a twining perennial plant with three leathery, often persistent leaflets. Flowers are somewhat clustered towards to the top of the inflorescences and pods contain 4-9 relatively large square seeds (Pfeil. BE et al., 2006). G. syndetika is diploid (2n = 40) member of the A-genome clade. (This species was formerly part of the Glycine tomentella species complex and was referred to as G. tomentella D4. ) It is has a restricted range in the Eastern Queensland region of Australia (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

NCBI taxonomy ID: 713886

Glycine syndetika resources

SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax1.01
GBrowse for G. syndetika Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax1.01
SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax2.0
GBrowse for G. syndetika Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax2.0

Glycine syndetika accessions

G1300 (Eastern Queensland region of Australia)
Glycine syndetika (B.E. Pfeil & Craven) is a twining perennial plant with three leathery, often persistent leaflets. Flowers are somewhat clustered towards to the top of the inflorescences and pods contain 4-9 relatively large square seeds (Pfeil. BE et al., 2006).
No resources are currently listed for accession G1300.

Glycine D3-tomentella

Image:
© Eun-Young Hwang, University of Maryland

A complex of diploid and tetraploid taxa are lumped under the name "G. tomentella" but are each reproductively isolated species, e.g. G. tomentella D3 belongs to the D-genome, whereas D1 G. tomentella belongs to the E-genome.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 2908013

Glycine D3-tomentella resources

SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax1.01
GBrowse for G. tomentella Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax1.01
SoyMap2 Diversity Browser on Gmax2.0
GBrowse for G. tomentella Bac End Sequence alignments on Gmax2.0

Glycine D3-tomentella accessions

G1403 (Australian state of Queensland and the eastern portion of Papua New Guinea)
G. D3 tomentella is a diploid (2n = 40) member of the complex of diploid and tetraploid taxa lumped under the name 'G. tomentella'. G. D3 tomentella is distinguished from other diploid members of Glycine tomentella species complex by ovated to broadly lanceolate leaves, a seed coat or testa that is dark brown to black (to see the testa the persistent endocarp must be removed) and pods 1.5 to 2 cm long with 2 to 6 seeds per pod (Hill, 1999). G. D3 tomentella occurs in the Australian state of Queensland and the eastern portion of Papua New Guinea (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).
No resources are currently listed for accession G1403.