Taxa

Arachis (Peanut)

The genus Arachis contains approximately 69 species, distributed in South America east of the Andes, in the regions or Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil. Krapovickas, A. & W.C. Gregory. 2006. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae). Translated by D.E. Williams & C.E. Simpson.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 3817

Tools and resources for the genus as a whole

PeanutMine
InterMine interface for accessing genetic and genomic data for several species in Arachis.
ZZBrowse
Association viewers (QTL, GWAS)
Gigwa
Genetic variation viewer
GCViT
Genetic variation viewer
Genome Context Viewer
Browser for dynamically discovering and viewing genomic synteny across selected species.
Germplasm GIS
Geographic information system viewer, showing collection locations for Arachis data held by the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System.

Tools and resources for particular species


Arachis hypogaea: peanut

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was domesticated at the foot of the South American Andes within modern-day Argentina, Bolivia, or Paraguay. Cultivated peanuts are allotetraploids, with sub-genomes probably contributed by the hybridization of the diploid species Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 3818

Arachis hypogaea resources

PeanutMine
InterMine interface for accessing genetic and genomic data for several species in Arachis.
ZZBrowse
Association viewers (QTL, GWAS)
Gigwa
Genetic variation viewer
GCViT
Genetic variation viewer
Genome Context Viewer
Browser for dynamically discovering and viewing genomic synteny across selected species.
Germplasm GIS
Geographic information system viewer, showing collection locations for Arachis data held by the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System.

Arachis hypogaea accessions

Tifrunner (Southeastern United States)
Cultivar Tifrunner is a runner-type peanut bred in the United States and widely planted as a variety and widely used in breeding programs. The genome of this cultivar is described in Bertioli et al., 2019 (doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0405-z). Fuhuasheng (North China)
The mid-twentieth century landrace Fuhuasheng, from North China, is a widely used parent from which ∼70% of Chinese peanut cultivars released during the past half century have been derived.
No resources are currently listed for accession Fuhuasheng. Shitouqi (China)
A. hypogaea var. Shitouqi (zh.h0235), the most widely cultivated peanut ecotype in the world, is a Chinese cultivar and breeding parent belonging to subspecies fastigiata, botanical type vulgaris and agronomic type Spanish with heterozygosity only 1/6,537 nucleotides on average.
No resources are currently listed for accession Shitouqi.

Arachis duranensis: diploid wild peanut - A-genome

Image: diploid wild peanut - A-genome
© misco

Arachis duranensis, a wild herb native to Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay, is thought to be one of the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut. Its genome has been sequenced as part of the Peanut Genomics Initiative, to help in the accurate assembly of the more important cultivated peanut, A. hypogaea. Cultivated peanut derived all of its genetic material from two wild ancestors, A. duranensis and A. ipaensis whose genomes merged several thousand years ago, in a rare genetic event. The wild species, therefore, have half as much genetic material as cultivated peanut. These two simpler genomes have first been sequenced toward achieving its ultimate goal: the complete genomic sequence for cultivated peanut. The cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid (2n=4x=40) that carries both the A and B genomes and A. duranensis (2n=2x=20) has likely contributed the A genome, the smaller set of chromosomes in the karyotype. These two ancestral diploids separated from each other about 3 million years ago. The genome merger, allopolyploidy event, ocurred relatively very recently, five to ten thousand years ago, followed by domestication in South America from where it appeared in most part of the world by 1600. Arachis duranensis is described further in Bertioli et al., 2016 (doi:10.1038/ng.3517)

NCBI taxonomy ID: 130453

No resources are currently listed for Arachis duranensis

Arachis duranensis accessions

V14167 (Argentina, via USDA National Plant Germplasm Repository)
Arachis duranensis strain V14167 originates in a region east of the Andes, in the vicinity of northern Argentina and southern Bolivia. This accession is thought to be one of the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut. Its genome has been sequenced as part of the Peanut Genomics Initiative, to help in the accurate assembly of the more important cultivated peanut, A. hypogaea. This accession is described in Bertioli et al., 2016 (doi:10.1038/ng.3517)
No resources are currently listed for accession V14167.

Arachis ipaensis: diploid wild peanut - B genome

Image: diploid wild peanut - B genome
© PBGG GSA at the University of Georgia

Arachis ipaensis A. ipaensis, native to Bolivia, is thought to be one of the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut. The genome of A. ipaensis has just been sequenced as part of the Peanut Genomics Initiative, to help in the accurate assembly of the tetraploid domestic peanut, A. hypogaea. Cultivated peanut derived all of its genetic material from two wild ancestors, A. duranensis and A. ipaensis whose genomes merged several thousand years ago, in a rare genetic event. The wild species, therefore, have half as much genetic material as cultivated peanut. These two simpler genomes have first been sequenced toward achieving its ultimate goal: the complete genomic sequence for cultivated peanut. Arachis ipaensis is described further in Bertioli et al., 2016 (doi:10.1038/ng.3517)

NCBI taxonomy ID: 130454

No resources are currently listed for Arachis ipaensis

Arachis ipaensis accessions

K30076 (Southern Bolivia)
Arachis ipaensis accession K30076 is the only accession collected from what is thought to be the origin of tetraploid peanut, Villa Montes Bolivia. It was likely carried there by early agriculturalists from a larger population several hundred kilometers to the north (Bertioli et al., 2016: doi:10.1038/ng.3517)
No resources are currently listed for accession K30076.

Arachis cardenasii: Mani silvestre (wild peanut)

Arachis cardenasii Krapov. & W.C. Greg. is a wild peanut relative native to Bolivia. It has been used by peanut breeders and geneticists in interspecific hybrids with cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea) as a source of pest and disease resistance. A. cardenasii is a diploid species in the 'A-genome' group of Arachis, similar to A. duranensis, which contributed one of the two subgenomes to tetraploid cultivated peanut.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 51121

No resources are currently listed for Arachis cardenasii

Arachis cardenasii accessions

K10017 (Robore, Bolivia)
Perennial plant. Taproot deep, Mainstem erect, with long procumbent lateral branches growing from base. Leaves tetrafoliolate, fruit geocarpic.
No resources are currently listed for accession K10017.